Runner’s High Revealed




Neuroscience_Neurology2.jpgMost long distance runners have experienced the “runner’s high” — a feeling of enhanced mood and relaxation following a strenuous run. Its presence is unmistakable, but also hard to explain, and even harder to scientifically prove. Recently, researchers used high-tech brain imaging to demonstrate changes in brain activity that correlate with this phenomenon. Perhaps more importantly, this runner’s high is also linked to decreased pain perception, providing a potential therapeutic mechanism for sufferers of chronic pain.

German researchers used positron emission tomography (PET) to detect brain activity before and after a 2 hour run. Endorphins are the proposed molecules that increase after a long run, and their actions are primarily on the opiate receptors within the brain. In the study, radioactive opiate receptor agonist were injected and imaged with PET. After a long run, participants brains’ showed decreased binding of the radioactive molecule, demonstrating that their opiate receptors were occupied by an endogenous substance. The level of radioactivity within the brain was markedly decreased from that imaged before running.

RunnerThe brain regions involved in this running-induced endorphin binding included the limbic and prefrontal regions, both involved in emotional processing. Participants reported increased euphoria and happiness, with euphoria levels correlating directly with the activity in these brain regions following exercise.

Opioid receptors in the brain are targets of potent painkillers and elicit drugs, such as morphine, codeine and heroine. These drugs markedly reduce the perception of pain, and increased doses produce euphoria. Because this same effect, albeit to a lesser degree, has now been detected with strenuous exercise, researchers may be able to apply exercise as a harmless and non-addictive painkiller.

Many patients with chronic pain become resistant to the effects of prescription pain medicine, and they also run the risk of addiction and dependence. By triggering the release of natural endorphins, long distance running may allow chronic pain patients to find some relief without the attendant risks of addictive medications.

Reference

Boecker, H., Sprenger, T., Spilker, M.E., Henriksen, G., Koppenhoefer, M., Wagner, K.J., Valet, M., Berthele, A., Tolle, T.R. (2008). The Runner’s High: Opioidergic Mechanisms in the Human Brain. Cerebral Cortex. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhn013

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  • AIC

    I ran from age 9 to 25 everyday and never got that. I ran from 1 to 14 miles everyday. I guess thats why i quit…

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  • Mysti

    This article is quite outdated now, it is now known that endorphins are only a contributor to ‘runner’s high’ and that other chemicals provide alot of the feelings experienced in a ‘runners high’.
    This process is also EXTREMLY addictive, and it is definatly possible for it to be harmful.

    You are meant to crave exercise, you are meant to feel like crap if you don’t get it, we need exercise for our mind and body to funtion properly, but be careful!

    • Donald

      I ran from 14 to 33 and experienced to ‘high’ every time. I ran to finish. My only award was the last man home ‘Gunga Din’ of the Karroo marathon (80km). I loved the end and always was there for the next beginning. Ran the Comrades Marathon (89km Durban – Pietermaritzberg’ 5 times over 12 years. Plantar Fasciatus set in and I had to stop. I still ‘spin’ and stretch 3 times a week 23 years later. If you hibernate most likely you’ll die young’.

Lindsey Kay, MD

Lindsey Kay, MD, is a medical doctor with training in pathology, and an avid writer. During his training, he worked on pre-clinical and clinical trials in a variety of laboratories related to alcohol effects on the brain, cancer diagnosis, and alternative medicine.
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