Estimates of combat-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in U.S. veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from approximately 2& to 17%. Additional studies of combat veterans of more recent wars places the range of Iraq War returnees who suffer from PTSD between 4% and 17%. Currently, there is no one form of treatment that has been found effective in combating this disorder, but can the brain somehow be encouraged to calm itself down?
Erik Erikson developed a psychosocial stage theory that illuminates how people progress through certain stages during their life spans. The stages in this theory of development may be negotiated poorly by people with chronic illness and schizophrenia, so Erikson's theory may have bearing on treatment for schizophrenia in adulthood.
Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions, thoughts or beliefs that are psychologically inconsistent with a person’s behavior. Cognitive dissonance occurs in terms of internal behavior wherein an individual’s thoughts or beliefs are rooted in inconsistency. In terms of dissonance, the psychotic individual may have conflicting views of their internal experience, their experience of auditory hallucinations, and the reality of their experience as stated by their treatment providers.
Intellectual functioning has a significant relationship to the child’s confidence in his or her abilities. Both intellect and self confidence interact with, and to a great extent, originate from personal experience. It is through experience with the world by which the child acquires self-confidence in his or her thought processes. Although 'confidence' in one’s self efficacy in terms of intellectual ability may seem nebulous, attempts have been made to define and codify it as a measurable concept.
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