What Color Is That? The Answer Depends On the Language You Speak


Color has long been one of the battlegrounds in psycholinguistics — this dates back to 1969 or earlier, when Brent Berlin and Paul Kay’s book Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution was published and struck what appeared to be a deathblow to the idea that the language a person speaks affects how that person thinks (known as linguistic relativity). But over forty years later, color is still a hot topic.

Categorical perception is the idea that perception is affected by the categories that are present in a language. When discussing color, this is critical. For example, we have 11 basic color terms in English, and a single word for the color blue. However, in Russian there are 12 basic terms, and two words that bisect the color space that we call ‘blue’. They have siniy, which corresponds to a darker blue, and goluboy, which corresponds to a lighter blue. Greek also has two words for blue. Korean has 15 basic color terms. These are examples of the different categories of color that are embedded in language.

It turns out that there are cognitive repercussions of long-term use of these different color categories. By using a timed color discrimination task, researchers showed that Russian speakers do actually think about color differently to English speakers (in short, they were able to distinguish between colors that crossed the siniy / goluboy boundary much more quickly, providing evidence that language has a direct effect on perception – a cognitive process once considered to be totally dissociable from language).

Another study suggested that the truth is even more complicated. This study looked at the hemispheric lateralization of categorical color perception and linguistic effects on it. Because language is primarily processed in the left side of the brain, and each visual hemifield is perceived by the contralateral cerebral hemisphere (i.e. the right side of the brain receives information from the left optic nerve), the authors reasoned that color perception in the right visual hemifield might be more affected by language than that in the left visual hemifield. Their results confirmed their hypothesis, showing that the functional organization of the brain plays a role when it comes to linguistic mediation of perception.

Several other studies since then have confirmed this idea, proving that perceptual processes are indeed affected by the categories present in one’s language. Exactly how these seemingly disparate cognitive processes are related and to what extent they interact with each other is yet to be determined, but one thing is clear: language plays a very significant role in how the brain works, especially in the left hemisphere. How this affects the rest of the brain remains to be seen.


Drivonikou, G., Kay, P., Regier, T., Ivry, R., Gilbert, A., Franklin, A., & Davies, I. (2007). Further evidence that Whorfian effects are stronger in the right visual field than the left Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (3), 1097-1102 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0610132104

Gilbert AL, Regier T, Kay P, & Ivry RB (2006). Whorf hypothesis is supported in the right visual field but not the left. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (2), 489-94 PMID: 16387848
Roberson, D., Hyensou Pak, J., & Hanley, R. (2008). Categorical perception of colour in the left and right visual field is verbally mediated: Evidence from Korean. Cognition, 107, 752–762. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.09.001

Winawer J, Witthoft N, Frank MC, Wu L, Wade AR, & Boroditsky L (2007). Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104 (19), 7780-5 PMID: 17470790

Image via PeterPhoto123 / Shutterstock.

  • Ren

    That’s quite interesting insight. I never looked at this in this type of perspective.

  • That really is interesting & makes total sense when you think about it….but you don’t often think how you would ‘see’ things (colors as well as other things) if you ‘thought’ about it in a different language & how that would change your perception.

  • Ali Tahir

    what i personally believe is that language plays no role in the ability of an individual to differentiate between the shades of a color. language is nothing but a code of communication.
    let me elaborate on my idea.
    the author describes his hypothesis using the color blue. and hence the two shades of blue. (siniy= dark blue…goluboy=light blue) in Russian. while for most the world, its just Blue. or whatever they may call it in their language.
    just in order to maintain an essence of equilibrium in language across the globe. i replace the terms with digits.
    (blue = 0)
    (light blue = 1)
    (dark blue = 2)

    Now, i am person ‘A’, and you are person ‘B’
    we’re both neighbors, same nationality, ethnicity, and same language is what we speak. digits.

    i identify a color as ‘0’. irrespective of its shade.
    your parents are smarter than mine. so they teach you to identify ‘0’ and capable of roughly distinguishing between the shades 1 and 2 of the color 0.
    over the passage of time, you would had trained your brain so intensely so as to form a very clear distinction between the shades 1 and 2, hence enabling you to distinguish between the two at the briefest look.
    so what exactly happened here ?
    i lived by a simple code identifying 0.
    while you had the sense of distinguishing between 01 and 02.
    why did you have that sense ?
    because you were given the idea. your mind opened to the shades. while mine was arrested.

    hence. lanuage plays no role.
    its all about what has been opened to you.

    • Ali Tahir

      now. if you really support my idea of hypothesis over the research.
      you’re an idiot.
      we both just described exactly the same idea.
      in different languages.
      but congrats. you now have a broader mind and a slightly better intellect and analytical skills.

      • You’re an idiot!

        See name.

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  • agaong

    This was previously explored in depth in Guy Deutchers 2010 book Through the Language Glass. Well worth a read.

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  • I suspect that that the two colours for blue can be explained.

    We had a cultural blind spot for that part of the spectral wavelength and hence a reported or language usage which perpetuates it.

    The Russian Cyny relates to cyan. Galuboy relates to primary colur blue.

    Most Westerners tend to call Cyan; light blue. Maybe it’s a sky thing where the colour of the sky changes throughout the day and months. Indeed there are many educational sites on colour where a conventional rainbow is manually constructed in images, next to photo images of real rainbows. Yet no explanation of the differences is made on the sites.

    However, There is a difference between the HUE, the wavelength of cyan and blue as well as the SATURATION, the amount in amplitude.

    One can, as the theory suggests, educate oneself by delineating between the two colours.

Daniel Albright, MA, PhD (c)

Daniel Albright, MA, is a PhD student at the University of Reading, studying the lateralization of linguistically mediated event perception. He received his masters in linguistics from the University of Colorado-Boulder. Get in touch with him at www.dannalbright.com or on Twitter at @dann_albright.
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