Cults and Terrorism, Part 3 – “Good” Cult-Like Groups
Continued from part two. The Amana Colony was founded in 1713 in Germany by two Lutherans as the Community of True Inspiration. Amana means true, from the Song of Solomon. They believed God speaks through inspired persons (Werkzeug). Persecuted, they moved to Buffalo NY in 1842, then in 1855 to seven communes in Iowa on 18,000 acres. In 1859 they became the Amana Society, non-profit religious communes of farms and businesses. The great depression in the 1930s reduced income and many families wanted to live separately, with more material possessions. In 1932 it became a for-profit joint stock company. Amana built refrigerators (now Whirlpool), beverage coolers (the first coke machine), and the Radarange microwave.
The Shakers were founded in 1747 in England as a splinter group of Quakers. Shaker derives from “shaking Quaker” because of their physically active rituals. They called themselves the United Society of believers in Christ’s 2nd Coming. In 1776 they moved to New York State in a pacifist commune of celibate men and women who lived separately. Women had equal status (took the U.S. ‘till 1920). Work was prayer and they farmed but are most remembered for their simple, practical furniture, and inventing the clothes pin and flat broom. They composed many songs, among which is Simple Gifts (“Tis a gift to be simple, ‘tis a gift to be free, ‘tis a gift to come down where you ought to be, after turning, turning, turning, to come down in the valley of love and delight”) made famous by composer Aaron Copland in Appalachian Spring.
The Oneida Commune was founded in 1848 in Oneida NY by Humphrey Noyes who believed Jesus’ millennial kingdom could be realized by spiritual purity. Members shared property and possessions, grew and canned fruits and vegetables, made leather luggage, garden furniture, straw hats, silk thread and, in 1857, silverware. Unlike Shaker celibacy, sex was seen as spiritual and every man was considered married to every woman. Partners changed weekly. Older members introduced teen members to sex since there was less risk of pregnancy (some unplanned pregnancies did occur). The commune declined when Noyes named his atheist son his successor, but also younger members wanted monogamous marriages. When marriage was allowed in 1879, 35 couples chose it. Soon all manufacturing was discontinued except silverware.
MacHovec, Frank. Cults and Terrorism. Publisher: Frank Machovec (lulu.com). 2010. ISBN: 978-0-557-04459-7.
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