The Memory of an Elephant




Neuroscience and Neurology CategoryAre there days in your life that you would rather forget ever happened? Falling down the stairs in front or your entire class or an embarrassing fashion faux pas? By the same token, there are some occasions we wish could remain as fresh in our mind’s eye as the day they occurred — whether it is a wedding day, the birth of a child or a graduation. Scientists have found 4 individuals who possess what is being referred to as “super-memory” — the ability to recall in uncanny detail both private and world events that have taken place. Three of the individuals are male; the lone female was the first to be recognized.

MemoryFunctional MRI (fMRI) of the brain showed two enlarged regions: the caudate nuclei and the area of the temporal lobe responsible for retaining information (see our reviews on fMRI, part 1 and 2). Many studies, including a publication by Dr. Norman White from the Department of Psychology at McGill University, have shown that damage to the caudate nucleus results in impaired memory. Huntington’s disease, a hereditary disorder with memory loss and abnormal movements, is caused by a lesion in this area of the brain.

The inability to put details out of your mind can be a blessing and a curse. Suppression of thoughts or memories which cause distress is considered by psychologists to be one of the mature coping mechanisms. It appears as though those who have super-memory would be unable to accomplish this successfully. Jill Price, the first person identified, relates her in book The Woman Who Can’t Forget that she often feels anguish over the constant flood of recollections.

Investigations into this phenomenon are still in the preliminary stages as scientists continue to recruit potential subjects. In the future, studies on persons with super-memory may provide researchers with answers as to how we retain information and may be the key to diseases where memory is affected such as Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson disease. However I’m sure that there are times when these four people yearn to just forget.

References

N WHITE (2008). Some highlights of research on the effects of caudate nucleus lesions over the past 200 years Behavioural Brain Research DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.12.003

  • http://www.medrevise.co.uk/wiki/Main_Page Medical revision

    I still don’t get it. What exactly is the caudate nucleus?

    I don’t think I’m ever going to understand neuro anatomy.

  • Leukocyte

    The caudate nucleus is part of the telencephalon (forebrain), but is inside (underneath) of the cerebral cortex, so it is called a subcortical nucleus. It is actually part of a group of nuclei called the basal nuclei or basal ganglia that are involved in motion and a whole lot of other stuff. It’s specific location is somewhat wrapped around the lateral edge of the lateral ventricles, the butterfly-like open spaces that are so easily visible on an MRI. Check it out at the: Harvard Brain Atlas

  • Bret

    I find that too. My memory begins around 4 yrs old and I can pretty much recollect details from that age forward. Though I notice that periods with lower emotional content tend to get lost “boring periods”. And yes it is certainly a curs, you can clearly remember every stuffup.

  • http://www.sunnyray.org/ sunnyray

    Yes I agree too. If you cannot forget some emotional content (or forgive if you got hurt by somebody) that is definitely a curse and this kind of memory can be only a burden.

  • onergk69

    Early childhood amnesia is quite common. It is difficult for most of us to recall details before age 4. We believe that long-term memory posses unlimited capacity of storage. However, many factors interfere w/ recall.

    The savant syndrome that we find in autism is a remarkable form of memory, and so is autobiograhical memory which the original author is alluding to. So far in the US, over 400 folks have this & are being intensely examined. Fortunately, I’m glad I don’t.

    Rich

Maria Goddard, MD

Maria Goddard, MD, is a medical doctor who has worked in medical research and clinical practice for several years. Her interests include traditional and alternative medicine as well as the sociological implications of certain diseases in particular populations.
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