Skinner was able to produce superstitious behavior in pigeons by rewarding them arbitrarily for no particular behavior. These pigeons had, in the past, learned that reinforcement was contingent upon behavior -- similar to human beings -- who learn, for example, that pay is contingent on work or that friendship is contingent on some loyalty. Do superstitious beliefs result from mental acts that are primitive in their use of reason?
The day my second son was born, a nurse -- who had raised two boys of her own -- offered advice: “When they get upset with each other, let them fight it out. They won’t kill each other.” She also added: “Just make sure they fight outside, so they don’t get blood on your carpet.” Fights between siblings, even physically violent ones, are expected –- and accepted –- in society, but is this attitude appropriate and healthy? A new study reports that sibling bullying is under-recognized, and it can have serious adverse consequences for mental health and overall well-being.
Emotional intelligence is defined as "the ability to monitor one’s own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions." Self-regulation of emotional intelligence is is vital to healthy emotional interactions.
The effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can dismantle the lives of not only those who suffer from this illness, but also those of family and friends. The federal government, the Department of Veteran Affairs, and professionals within the psychiatric field are working diligently to provide alternatives in treatment for victims suffering from PTSD and their families.