Various types of schizophrenia are distinguished by certain symptoms that, while relating to affective, social, physical and intellectual functioning, indicate consequences of extreme emotional suffering. This suffering results in apathetic behavior reflected in diminished emotional expression. Most prominently, schizophrenics may display "learned helplessness", a condition that has also been tied to depression. Could various forms of learned helplessness be primary characteristics of schizophrenia?
Roughly a half billion people interact on Facebook every day, with many more engaging in other social networking sites. With all these friends, it would seem that social networking followers have a great support system and a happy life. New research points out, however, that Facebook may actually be undermining well-being and life satisfaction.
Schizophrenia is an adult-onset disorder that can significantly disrupt the life of patients as well as their primary caregivers. Diagnosis is essentially a post-hoc assessment, but by then, neurocognitive deficits are permanent and curative treatment options to improve the quality of life of patients are more limited. Early assessment of the risk of developing schizophrenia is essential to bring in interventions to reduce the impact of these deficits.
Skinner was able to produce superstitious behavior in pigeons by rewarding them arbitrarily for no particular behavior. These pigeons had, in the past, learned that reinforcement was contingent upon behavior -- similar to human beings -- who learn, for example, that pay is contingent on work or that friendship is contingent on some loyalty. Do superstitious beliefs result from mental acts that are primitive in their use of reason?
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