Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), (also known as "electrosleep", "transcranial electrotherapy" and by many other names), involves a form of treatment that sends low intensity microcurrent (under 1 milliampere) to the brain.  CES devices function differently from other biomedical electronics, such as deep brain stimulating electrodes (which prevent seizures and hand tremors)  and heart pacemakers. While those instruments require surgical implantation, CES operates non-invasively. Designed for home use, the devices deliver current to the brain via a hand held machine to electrodes attached on or behind the ears.
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