I’m Just Not That Into Meby Jennifer Gibson, PharmD | March 25, 2015
Ask most women and they will gladly tell you that men are more egotistical, power-hungry, and arrogant than women. Now, science backs up these claims. A team of researchers analyzed three decades of research involving nearly 500,000 people and concluded that men are, in fact, more narcissistic than women. But, are men born narcissistic or do they have narcissism thrust upon them?
Of the aspects of narcissism examined in the latest analysis, men were more likely to display leadership and authority and a sense of entitlement than women. Men and women were equally likely to demonstrate a third aspect of narcissism – grandiose exhibitionism, which includes qualities like vanity and being self-absorbed. The authors reported that there was no evidence of either gender becoming more or less narcissistic over time.
The gender differences observed by the authors likely have at least something to do with gender roles that are learned at a young age. For men, leadership and assertiveness are valued in today’s culture. For women, these qualities often lead to less-than-flattering nicknames and reputations.
Narcissism, at least in name, has roots in Greek mythology. Narcissus was a hunter who was known for his beauty. He saw his own reflection in a pool of water and, being so entranced with it, was unable to leave and died next to the water. This tale is designed to caution listeners of the dangers of being overly vain and fixated on one’s own self. And, today we know that narcissism is associated with dysfunctional interpersonal interactions and behaviors, including the inability to maintain long-term relationships, unethical behavior, impulsivity, and aggression.
But, will narcissism always lead to a lonely waterside death? Some experts argue that narcissism is necessary for survival and is required for self-esteem, emotional stability, and effective leadership. Narcissism can and should be a part of normal functioning and development. For example, children are necessarily narcissistic; self-preservation depends on a child’s ability to worry about its own needs. But, most children grow and mature into healthy adults who are capable of thinking beyond their own immediate needs. Further, leadership and authority dimensions of narcissism are associated with adaptive outcomes. And, narcissism is positively associated with physical activity and healthy eating patterns.
Still, not all dimensions of narcissism are good. Narcissism is associated with risky health behaviors, and entitlement, exploitativeness, and grandiose exhibitionism are associated with maladaptive outcomes. Narcissism can be problematic for both individuals and for society. For individuals, people who already think they are great never try to improve themselves. For society, people who are self-involved do not help others.
There is a complex relationship among narcissism and self-esteem and healthy functioning. And, while extreme variations of narcissistic traits can cause serious social and health implications, dimensions of narcissism such as leadership, assertiveness, and even a little vanity can be balanced with humility and outward-focused behaviors to establish mature, stable, and effective relationships.
Ackerman RA, Witt EA, Donnellan MB, Trzesniewski KH, Robins RW, & Kashy DA (2011). What does the narcissistic personality inventory really measure? Assessment, 18 (1), 67-87 PMID: 20876550
Grijalva E, Newman DA, Tay L, Donnellan MB, Harms PD, Robins RW, & Yan T (2015). Gender differences in narcissism: A meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin, 141 (2), 261-310 PMID: 25546498
Hill EM (2015). The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors. Journal of health psychology PMID: 25694344
Miller JD, Lynam DR, McCain JL, Few LR, Crego C, Widiger TA, & Campbell WK (2015). Thinking Structurally About Narcissism: An Examination of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory and Its Components. Journal of personality disorders, 1-18 PMID: 25710734
Owens BP, Walker AS, & Waldman DA (2015). Leader Narcissism and Follower Outcomes: The Counterbalancing Effect of Leader Humility. The Journal of applied psychology PMID: 25621592
Pincus AL, & Lukowitsky MR (2010). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annual review of clinical psychology, 6, 421-46 PMID: 20001728
Roberts BW, Edmonds G, & Grijalva E (2010). It Is Developmental Me, Not Generation Me: Developmental Changes Are More Important Than Generational Changes in Narcissism-Commentary on. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 5 (1), 97-102 PMID: 21243122
Roberts R, Woodman T, Lofthouse S, & Williams L (2014). Not all players are equally motivated: The role of narcissism. European journal of sport science, 1-7 PMID: 25506721
Wright AG, Pincus AL, Thomas KM, Hopwood CJ, Markon KE, & Krueger RF (2013). Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits. Assessment, 20 (3), 339-52 PMID: 23610234
No future articles scheduled.
This Sunday February 14th (9 p.m. ET), the Emmy-nominated Brain Games tv-show is back! Wonder junkie Jason Silva returns to our screens, teaming up with... READ MORE →
Do not miss out ever again. Subscribe to get our newsletter delivered to your inbox a few times a month.
Like what you read? Give to Brain Blogger sponsored by GNIF with a tax-deductible donation.Make A Donation