Too Much Information? – Labeling Restaurant Menus

Information can be a source of learning; but, when there is too much information, or it is not available in a form that can be easily understood and analyzed by the person for whom it is intended, information can be a burden. Or, too much information can simply be ignored in an over-stimulated society. Such seems to be the case when it comes to labeling restaurant menus with nutrition information.

In the last few years, many cities, counties and states have enacted, or considered enacting, legislation requiring that nutrition information be disclosed to consumers at the point of purchase in restaurants. The legislation is aimed at reducing obesity, and decreasing its related public health burden, by providing more information to consumers. But, recent studies evaluating the early effects of these mandates are reporting less than satisfying results.

Most recently, an analysis of mandatory fast-food menu-labeling in King County, Washington reported no change in consumer behavior or food purchasing, compared to pre-labeling legislation. Overall, the number of transactions and calories per transaction did not vary between control and intervention locations before or after the legislation was enacted.

Similarly, in New York City, food selection was analyzed before and after enforcement of fast-food menu labeling began. In this case, 64% of restaurant-goers reported seeing the nutrition information. Among people who saw the information, only 27% reported using the information to make a different food choice. However, this did result in a 2-fold increase in the number of patrons making nutrition-informed choices.

Also in Washington state, full service restaurants in Pierce County added nutrition information to their menus. In this case, a small impact was seen in food purchases: overall, each post-labeling entrée contained 15 fewer calories, 1.5 fewer fat grams, and 45 fewer milligrams of sodium on average than pre-labeling entrees. In total, 71% of restaurant-goers noticed the information on the menu; but only 20% used this information to choose a lower-calorie option, while 16% chose a lower-fat option. Among a small subset of restaurant patrons, nutrition information may impact food choices, but the requirements are, so far, lacking the robust outcomes for which supporters of the legislation hoped.

In New York City alone, more than 1 million people see nutrition information every day in restaurants now. Once menu-labeling is more widespread, or has been in place for a while, will people continue to notice it? Or, will it fade into the background with the rest of the information-overload today? Many consumers report that nutrition information is important, and support restaurants providing it, but few people are actually willing to use the information for their own food choices. People who want a salad still order a salad, and those who want a hamburger still order a hamburger. If only a small subset of people use the nutrition information to alter behavior, is the intervention worthwhile?

There is no doubt or argument that obesity is a public health crisis demanding education and attention. But, obesity is also profitable, since consumers demand lower-cost, convenient food choices, which are usually less nutritious, along with drugs, devices and quick-fix diets that manage the health consequences of such consumption. Only time will tell if the results of menu-labeling legislation should be savored, or if this is one more failed attempt to curb America’s appetite for labor-saving, affordable food.


Dumanovsky T, Huang CY, Bassett MT, & Silver LD (2010). Consumer awareness of fast-food calorie information in New York City after implementation of a menu labeling regulation. American journal of public health, 100 (12), 2520-5 PMID: 20966367

Finkelstein EA, & Strombotne KL (2010). The economics of obesity. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 91 (5) PMID: 20237140

Finkelstein EA, Strombotne KL, Chan NL, & Krieger J (2011). Mandatory menu labeling in one fast-food chain in King County, Washington. American journal of preventive medicine, 40 (2), 122-7 PMID: 21238859

Lando AM, & Labiner-Wolfe J (2007). Helping consumers make more healthful food choices: consumer views on modifying food labels and providing point-of-purchase nutrition information at quick-service restaurants. Journal of nutrition education and behavior, 39 (3), 157-63 PMID: 17493566

Piron J, Smith LV, Simon P, Cummings PL, & Kuo T (2010). Knowledge, attitudes and potential response to menu labelling in an urban public health clinic population. Public health nutrition, 13 (4), 550-5 PMID: 19706217

Pulos E, & Leng K (2010). Evaluation of a voluntary menu-labeling program in full-service restaurants. American journal of public health, 100 (6), 1035-9 PMID: 20395577

Wills JM, Schmidt DB, Pillo-Blocka F, & Cairns G (2009). Exploring global consumer attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels. Nutrition reviews, 67 Suppl 1 PMID: 19453661

  • On the surface, these menus appear to be designed for the purpose of nutrition information. In truth, they’re part of liberalism and the attempt of the government to insert its sneaky oily fingers into all aspects of our lives and ultimately tell us what we can and cannot eat.
    Liberalism is dangerous. Socialism destroys. History bears it out.

    • Charlie Whitcomb

      I disagree and like the idea of knowing all about what goes into our bodies. There is a lot of junk out there is seemingly “healthy” packages. We need full disclosure!

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  • Hi there,

    I believe that something sounding so simple to put nutrition information on a restaurant menu might not be that attractive to the top restaurants.

    It is all about style and class for most of the restaurants and in my opinion, it is something that will catch on but will be a struggle in the beginning.

    There will always be individuals that will never be influenced by a guideline of what is healthy and what isn’t. People see what they want (not need) and order it without thinking twice.

    64% restaurant-goers noticed the change but it influenced less than half of them. Although it is not a significant number, it is a start…


    • Lark

      To me a large part of what makes a restaurant “top” is that they use fresh, organic, minimally processed and preferably locally produced ingredients. If there are GMO ingredients, artificial colors or flavors, grain gluten, hydrogenated or otherwise industrially manipulated oils, factory farmed meat/veggies, HFCS and so on, I want to know about it so I can avoid them. I couldn’t care less about numbers of calories/fat grams, but I do want to know whether the meal being offered is actually food and if the ingredients are produced in a humane and sustainable manner.

  • Sinisa Janicijevic

    It`s very interesting point of view. Too much information can really confuse people. But what else can restaurants do? On the other hand there are always be people who care about the nutrition, and people who don`t. Everybody is making his or her own choice.

Jennifer Gibson, PharmD

Jennifer Gibson, PharmD, is a practicing clinical pharmacist and medical writer/editor with experience in researching and preparing scientific publications, developing public relations materials, creating educational resources and presentations, and editing technical manuscripts. She is the owner of Excalibur Scientific, LLC.

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